How Does Centrifuge Work?

A Centrifuge is a tool for separating particles contained in a certain solution / substance which is distinguished based on the density level differences. Centrifuge performs its work process using the principle of centrifugal force. Centrifugal force is a rotating force that will cause the sample tubes to move / stir away from the center of the circle / orbit.

This force is inversely proportional to the centripetal force which rotates to make the sample tubes approach the orbit. The centrifugal force will cause the liquid particle which has a large volume and density to collect at the bottom of the sample tubes to form sedimentation, while the liquid particle which has a small volume and is not dense will be floating.

So, it means if the mass density is low, the result will be floating in the middle or top of the liquid, while if the mass density is large, the result will form sedimentation at the surface bottom of the liquid. The centrifuge process can be done in a short time as long as the rotation process is set at high speed.

The Centrifuge is divided into 3 working principles, such as:

Low-speed Centrifuge

A Low-speed centrifuge is a type of centrifuge working principle that performs the rotation process at a moderate speed of around 4000-5000 revolutions per minute. This working principle is usually used when you want to separate red blood cell particles so the plasma and serum will be separated according to their specific mass density levels.

High-speed Centrifuge

A High-speed centrifuge is a type of working principle that performs the rotation process at high speed up to around 15000-20000 revolutions per minute. This working principle is often used in complex biochemical processes, and the rotor temperature must always be controlled to prevent damage to the sample solution.


Ultracentrifuge is a type of working principle that performs the rotation process at a very- very high speed, which is around 65000 revolutions per minute. This working principle is used in the biochemical processes of cells or very complex with very small preparations, such as viruses, proteins, lipoproteins, DNA and RNA. Ultracentrifuge will usually be equipped with a temperature controller on the rotor that is shaped like a refrigerator and a vacuum so that the temperature can remain normal during the process.

Here are the steps on how to use a centrifuge properly:

  1. Prepare the centrifuge tool and plug it into the electric socket.
  2. Prepare a tube or other container that has been filled with the liquid sample to be rotated, and place it in the centrifuge symmetrically and balanced.
  3. Turn on the engine.
  4. Then set the desired timer by turning the knob, the timer will stop automatically according to the set time.
  5. Select the desired and required rotation speed.
  6. During the rotation process, usually the operation lamp will light up.
  7. When finished, wait until the tool stops rotating and then remove the sample.
  8. Lastly, don't forget to turn off the device by pressing the power button.

So that's some information about the working principle of the centrifuge. If you are interested in centrifuge tools, PT. Hartech Indonesia provides a variety of centrifuge products that can meet the needs of your laboratory or workplace. We also provide a variety of life science, laboratory equipment and consumables products. For additional information, please visit

Share this Post: